Model structure and connectivity. A) The structure and connectivity of the 12 network areas are shown, with the perisylvian articulatory-phonological system in red/pink colors, including primary motor cortex (M1i), premotor cortex (PMi), and inferior prefrontal cortex (PFi), and the acoustic phonological system in blue, including the primary auditory cortex (A1), auditory belt (AB), and parabelt (PB). Extrasylvian regions include the dorsolateral hand-motor system in yellow/brown, consisting of the lateral prefrontal (PFL), premotor (PML), and primary motor (M1L) cortex, as well as the ventral visual stream in green, including the anterior temporal (AT), temporo-occipital (TO), and primary visual (V1) areas. Numbers refer to Brodmann areas and arrows between areas represent long distance cortico-cortical connections. B) Schematic of the areas and their connectivity structure. C) Micro-connectivity structure of one modeled excitatory »cell«, labeled e. Gray lines arching upward represent within-area excitatory links that are limited to the local neighborhood (light shaded area). Purple lines arching upward capture between-area links. The underlying gray cells represent an inhibitory cell i, which inhibits neighbors proportional to the total input it receives from the neighborhood shaded in darker purple. Figure adapted from Tomasello et al. (2018). Copyright: Constant, Pulvermüller, Tomasello